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Pakistan The Formative Phase Pdf Fixed


The formative research was conducted from September, 2002 to February, 2003. Forty-eight villages were randomly selected for this phase. The objectives of the formative research were three fold 1) Assess the perinatal and newborn care practices at household level 2) Identify the underlying determinants of the practices and beliefs attached to these practices 3) Understand the local community acceptability and cultural feasibility of the interventions within the local health system settings. The findings of the formative research informed the design and delivery platforms of intervention package such as Lady Health Workers (LHWs) and Community Health Workers (CHWs) deployed by Aga Khan Health Services Pakistan (AKHSP). Government of Pakistan introduced community based National Primary Health Care and family Planning Program (known as LHW program) in 1994. As part of this program, the Lady Health Workers (LHW), local resident women with 8 grade of formal education were trained for 18 months and deployed to deliver community based care. The Community Health Workers (CHWs) are local female health workers trained by AKHSP to deliver community level health programs.




Pakistan The Formative Phase Pdf


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The objective of phase II was to evaluate the impact of the intervention package on perinatal and neonatal mortality and maternal and newborn care practices using quasi experimental design. The overall population of 283,324 comprising 35,641 households located in the study district was allocated to intervention and control areas based on geographical proximity to avoid contamination and manage logistics and undertake the study with limited resources available (Figure 2). The intervention area was comprised of 16,802 households and population of 137781 and the control area covered 18659 households and population of 145543 (Table 1). The phase II was carried out in sixteen months.


The development and testing of the scale was conducted in two phases: 1) formative phase of qualitative inquiry to identify social norms and personal beliefs that sustain and justify GBV perpetration against women and girls; and 2) testing phase using quantitative methods to conduct a psychometric evaluation of the new scale in targeted areas of Somalia and South Sudan.


In this paper, we describe the formative research and psychometric testing of the Social Norms and Beliefs about Gender Based Violence (GBV) Scale. The Scale is designed to measure change over time in harmful social norms and personal beliefs associated with violence against women and girls among men and women community members in low resource and complex humanitarian settings. The development and validation of the scale was essential for use in measuring change in harmful social norms and beliefs among community members in districts and regions implementing the Communities Care program in two countries with ongoing humanitarian crises, Somalia and South Sudan. The development and testing of the scale was conducted in two phases: 1) formative phase of qualitative inquiry to identify social norms and personal beliefs that sustain and justify GBV perpetration against women and girls across the lifespan in low-resource and humanitarian contexts; and 2) testing phase using quantitative methods to conduct a psychometric evaluation of the new scale in targeted areas of Somalia and South Sudan.


The formative and testing phases of the psychometric evaluation was conducted in two countries, Somalia and South Sudan. In Southern Central Somalia, we worked in four districts (Bondhere, Karaan, Wadajir, Yaqshid) in Mogadishu and in South Sudan, we worked in two regions (Yei and Warrap). Somalia has experienced more than two decades of conflict as well as ongoing emergencies including drought, famine, and a large number of internally displaced people (IDPs). Yei is located in southwestern South Sudan and was the re-entry point for South Sudanese who fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Uganda during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Since many people stayed in Yei upon returning, there is conflict between those native to Yei and IDPs from other regions of South Sudan. Warrap is in the northern region of South Sudan and is a gateway between South Sudan and Sudan. Militia activity, cattle-raiding, and conflict over oil, along with the influx of people returning to South Sudan, has caused significant challenges for access to and use of limited resources. The districts and regions in each country were selected based on multiple factors. We focused efforts on districts and regions where GBV reporting systems existed and could be accessed to generate data on case reports and referrals. When engaging GBV survivors and other community members in research on sensitive issues it is essential to have partnerships with diverse service sectors (e.g., health, protection, legal, advocacy) for participants that disclose GBV and request referrals. The evaluation also required safe access to the sites and security while doing the study for both participants and local researchers, therefore this required establishing relationships and obtaining permission from national, regional, and district governmental authorities and ministries as well as traditional leaders in the communities.


NP, NG, MM, AC, SRH, SH, FK, AD, MY designed the study. MM, SRH, NP, RT, LH, NG and AC identified the theoretical framework for the formative and psychometric phases of the study. NG, NP, and LH conducted the psychometric analysis. MY, CYP, AA, AC, NP and NG implemented and interpretation the study findings in South Sudan and SH, BR, AD, AA, FK, AC, NG and NP implemented and interpretation of the study findings in Somalia. NP, NG, RT, AC and LH finalized the manuscript.


PHASES ANDSTEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 2on the previous page) further illustrates how the 12 essential steps progressfrom one to the next. It also shows the interaction and relationships of the fouressential phases of the curriculum development process: ( I) Planning, (II) Content and Methods, (III) Implementation, and (IV) Evaluation and Reporting. It isimportant to acknowledge that things do not always work exactly as depicted ina model!


Each phase has several steps or tasksto complete in logical sequence. These steps are not always separate anddistinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently. For example, the curriculumdevelopment team is involved in all of the steps. Evaluations should occur inmost of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what doesnot and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is implemented.Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to designlearning activities before learner outcomes and content are described andidentified. Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes aredescribed.


A briefdescription of each of the curriculum development steps is described below.After reviewing these descriptions, you should have a very clear idea of howthe steps occur in each of the phases and what each step includes.


There are two phases in the needsassessment process. The first is procedures for conducting a needs assessment. A number of techniques are aimedtoward learning what is needed andby whom relative to the identifiedissue. Techniques covered in this section include: KAP - Knowledge, Attitude,and Practice Survey; focus groups; and environmental scanning.


(11) Design Evaluation Strategies Evaluation is a phase in thecurriculum development model as well as a specific step. Two types ofevaluation, formative and summative, are used during curriculum development.Formative evaluations are used during the needs assessment, productdevelopment, and testing steps. Summative evaluations are undertaken to measureand report on the outcomes of the curriculum. This step reviews evaluationstrategies and suggests simple procedures to produce valid and reliableinformation. A series of questions are posed to guide the summative evaluationprocess and a sample evaluation format is suggested.


Most formative assessment strategies are quick to use and fit seamlessly into the instruction process. The information gathered is rarely marked or graded. Descriptive feedback may accompany formative assessment to let students know whether they have mastered an outcome or whether they require more practice.


Pupil assessment, both formative and summative, is deemed an imperative part of the education process. Unfortunately, standardised exams and informal testing in schools are also blamed for the narrowing of the curriculum and teaching methods, contributing towards damaging levels of stress among teachers and pupils, and only valuing specific achievements to the detriment of broader learning.


The distinction between some types of summative assessment and formative assessment can be hard to identify. For example, schools may use benchmark testing to monitor the academic progress of pupils and determine whether they are on track to mastering the material that will be evaluated on end-of-course tests.


Overall, a comprehensive assessment program balances formative and summative student data. With this approach, educators receive the clearest insight on where a student is relative to his or her peers, their overall education goals, and UK learning targets and standards. To help support students in showing their understanding, get in touch for a free, no-obligation demo of the ActivPanel and see how it can transform your classroom environment.


The most important considerations during the planning phase of your project evaluation are prioritizing short and long-term goals, identifying your target audience(s), determining methods for collecting data, and assessing the feasibility of each for your target audience(s).


This is the carrying out of your evaluation plan. Although it may vary considerably from project to project, you will likely concentrate on formative and process evaluation strategies at this point in your efforts.


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